Книга The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. Volume 1. Indian Military Intervention in East Pakistan

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In 1947, India and Pakistan were partitioned by their former colonial ruler, Great Britain. A job that should have taken ten-years was done in a few months. Britain, drained by two world wars in 40 years, no longer had the will or the money to guide the subcontinent to a peaceful partition by consensus. More importantly, the subcontinent was impatient for Britain’s departure. The British left in haste, leaving unresolved the issue of Kashmir and as a festering sore between the two states. This triggered five wars between the new states: 1947-48, 1965, 1971, 1999 and continuing insurgency/counterinsurgency that began in 1987. Two other potential wars were narrowly averted in 1987-88 and 2001-02, and a limited one fought in 1999. Since the basic issue remains unresolved, the next war may be only a matter of time.

Pakistan itself was composed of two geographically separated portions, the East and the West, with little in common other than the Muslim religion. In 1970, East Pakistan voted for independence; armed rebellion soon followed, and a vicious counterinsurgency attempted to suppress the rebellion. India, seizing the chance to change the balance of power, militarily supported the East Pakistan insurgency. With Indian troops on the ground from November 1971 they openly invaded East Pakistan in early December with eight divisions. Pakistan launched air attacks against India in the west and an all-out war resulted. East Pakistan was overrun by India by 16 December; the US and Soviet forced a ceasefi re in the West only a day later. For the first time in 800 years, a predominantly Hindu army had defeated a Muslim army.

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In 1947, India and Pakistan were partitioned by their former colonial ruler, Great Britain. A job that should have taken ten-years was done in a few months. Britain, drained by two world wars in 40 years, no longer had the will or the money to guide the subcontinent to a peaceful partition by consensus. More importantly, the subcontinent was impatient for Britain’s departure. The British left in haste, leaving unresolved the issue of Kashmir and as a festering sore between the two states. This triggered five wars between the new states: 1947-48, 1965, 1971, 1999 and continuing insurgency/counterinsurgency that began in 1987. Two other potential wars were narrowly averted in 1987-88 and 2001-02, and a limited one fought in 1999. Since the basic issue remains unresolved, the next war may be only a matter of time.

Pakistan itself was composed of two geographically separated portions, the East and the West, with little in common other than the Muslim religion. In 1970, East Pakistan voted for independence; armed rebellion soon followed, and a vicious counterinsurgency attempted to suppress the rebellion. India, seizing the chance to change the balance of power, militarily supported the East Pakistan insurgency. With Indian troops on the ground from November 1971 they openly invaded East Pakistan in early December with eight divisions. Pakistan launched air attacks against India in the west and an all-out war resulted. East Pakistan was overrun by India by 16 December; the US and Soviet forced a ceasefi re in the West only a day later. For the first time in 800 years, a predominantly Hindu army had defeated a Muslim army.

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